What Is ARP ( Address Resolution Protocol )


Anka Underground Team
13 Ocak 2021
What Is ARP :

ARP is a protocol that can enable the conversion of network layer addresses into data link layer addresses, IP addresses into Mac addresses.
ARP is used for data transfer in Ethernet networks.
There are 4 types between 2 computer about of communication with Using ARP in a network.

1. used when it is on the same network and one wants to send packets to the other.
2. Two computers are used to access the routera (modem) in different networks.
3. Used when a router needs to send packets to a device on the local network through another router.
4. Used when the router wants to send packets to a computer on the same network.

What Is IP Adress :

The address used by internet-connected devices to communicate with each other over the network.
Even if the devices are not on the same network, they can communicate with each other with routers.
32-bit long IP addresses (IPv4) are used in networks that use the TCP / IP protocol.

What Is Mac Adress :

All computer has an ethernet card. These Ethernet cards have 48 bit physical ID's determined at the production stage.
These ID's are saying Mac Addresses. These ID's special and constant define card.
Mac address only allows communication in the local network. It only allows computers on the same network to communicate with each other.
Internet communication rule array, It is a set of accepted rules for communicating between computers and network devices.
This set of rules determines how data is sent and whether there are errors. This set of rules consists of 7 steps.


As you can see in the IP Network layer, It is located in the Ethernet Data Link layer.
It uses different addressing methods from each other. To be able to send packets at the network layer, this packet must be definition at the data link layer and the physical layer.
The protocol that regulates the connection process between two different addresses is the Address Resolution Protocol.
This protocol is definition to convert network layer addresses to link layer addresses.

ARP Request Packet Sending :

In order to send a packet to another computer on the local network, the hardware address must be known as well as the ip address.
If there is a device whose IP address is known but the mac address is unknown, A broadcast request is sent to the local network to get the mac address.
These request called (ARP Rquest). This request includes the sender's IP address, the physical address (Mac address), and the recipient's private IP address.
The request is sent and no response is received from any device, except for the recipient's IP address.
In the response from the device that replied the request, it sends the IP address of the device sending the request, its own physical address and the IP address of the request sender.
As a result, the two devices save each other in their memory for later use.
It would be more understandable if we explain it with an example


For example, there are 4 computers connected to each other in an internet cafe. Computer 1 is want to connect to computer 4.
First of all, ARP request is sent from Computer 1.
ARP request ;
* sender's computer IP
* MAC adress
* Target computer IP
* Target MAC adress

send. Since the mac address of the target computer is unknown, a broadcast broadcast is made by sending the FF: FF: FF: FF: FF packet.
Broadcast is sent to all computers. The computer with the target machine IP receives 4 information, It saves in the chart called the ARP chart.
Then as APR Answer;
* Own MAC adress
* Own IP adress
* Target copmuter
* Computer1 IP
* Computer1 MAC adress

send. After all, both computers save each other's information in ARP charts. You can type arp -a at the command prompt to view the ARP chart on your computer.
You can use the arp -d command to clear the ARP chart.

What Is the ARP Chart :

ARP chart is called , ARP Cache by another definition. A device caches the devices it communicates with on the network.
saving happens in 2 different ways ; Static save and dynamic save Dynamic saving is mostly used.The above are dynamic saving steps.
Static saving, on the other hand, can do when dynamic saving cannot be done, or you can define your Mac address statically to protect against ARP spoofing attacks.

How Do It?
You can do it in two ways.

1-) We open the command prompt and type arp.


-s parameter add the host computer and associates its internet address with physical address.
The physical address is given as 6 hexadecimal bytes separated by hyphens. Entry is permanent.


2-) We can use the netsh network tool to define it.

We write netsh on the command line and write the transactions in order.

* interface ipv4
* show interfaces
* set neighbors “local area network” “” “00-aa-00-62-c6-09”

We saw the list of active network units with Show interfaces we made in step 2.

Thank you for reading my writing

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